Monday, August 24, 2020

Osteoporosis and Radio Ad Essay

Radio Ad We realize numerous individuals stress over the dangers of getting joint pain and osteoporosis, just as wounds from falls as you start climb the last called age. We are doing this radio advertisement in advancing a more advantageous Muscular framework well in to your retirement age. Albeit some constant malady chance factors, for example, (family ancestry, age or sex) can't be altered thus can't be joined into counteraction techniques, these components can assist with distinguishing individuals or gatherings at high danger of building up an ailment, empowering a focused on approach. The modifiable dangers factors are normal to all ceaseless ailment which incorporates diet, weight, work out, liquor admission and smoking. It is imperative to comprehend that receiving solid way of life practices will decrease the danger of every single incessant malady, including joint pain and musculoskeletal conditions. A decent eating regimen will assist with accomplishing a sound weight and body. While expanding the admission of calcium additionally retention of nutrient D will help with decreasing dangers of creating joint inflammation and osteoporosis. Normal exercise helps in the avoidance of musculoskeletal conditions, and it assists with easing and decrease joint agony and firmness and construct solid muscle around the joints. Individuals who are stout are at higher danger of joint pain or osteoporosis because of the expanded burden over the weight bearing joints, and expanding the weight on ligament and tendons. Individuals who decrease their smoking and drinking will diminish the dangers for low bone mass, low bone quality, and low body weight. Having a more beneficial way of life gives you a sensational days directly into your retirement years.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Why You Should Write a Business Plan Before You Need It

Why You Should Write a Business Plan Before You Need ItMany small business owners don't write a business plan until they need one. They may be losing money with their business and believe they have no way to raise capital. When these types of situations arise, a business plan can be an important tool in getting things back on track. If you start preparing one early enough, you will have time to work with your creditors to develop a strategy that works for both of you.It is important to understand how a plan is supposed to work. The basic outline for a plan is fairly simple. In it, you provide information about your business and its operations and how you expect to turn a profit within the next year.The document should also clearly outline how you plan to pay back the creditors. This usually happens when you decide to offer them a reasonable plan. One good example is offering to pay all debts, interest and fees over a period of several years. Then, when your debts are paid off, the bu siness should pay the creditors a lump sum for the outstanding balance. This means that if your business is very successful and has a great profit margin, it can make monthly payments instead of making separate checks.Once you have worked through the planning phase, you can then move on to the next phase, which is actually writing the plan. To get started, you need to put together a timeline of when you plan to raise the funds.What time frame do you base this on? Will it be after you complete the new project? Or, will it be during the first three months of operation, or in the first two months of operations?The best way to figure out when to raise the capital is to break down your overall cash flow into the three categories. For example, if you take into account only cash that you spend, you'll see that raising the capital immediately will help improve your cash flow situation, but your income will not be affected, while paying off the debt over time will increase your bottom line.T he process of writing a plan begins with creating a spreadsheet. After you've made a list of what you need to raise money for, you'll want to make sure that each column is completed. There are several financial models that you can use, including those based on CAPM (cost of capital) and CAPEX (cost of equity).When you have all the information ready, it is a good idea to split the spreadsheet up into more than just columns. You can do this by grouping the columns according to whether the project will be financed through the use of the business' own resources or from external sources. For example, if you're raising capital for an internet marketing company, you might want to include the different types of funds that might be used: debt, equity or venture capital.

Friday, July 17, 2020

Management by Delegation Leadership Insights

Management by Delegation â€" Leadership Insights © | Enculescu Marian VladutConsider you are given a new task to do. Is your first instinct as a manager to hand it forward to your subordinates or to think you should do it yourself?You’ll encounter plenty of these situations as a manager and one of the ways to deal with managing and getting things done is by using a method called management by delegation. Let’s look at what this style and process entails, why it is important and how you can delegate efficiently as a manager.WHAT IS MANAGEMENT BY DELEGATION?Let’s start by examining the concept of management by delegation. The easiest way to understand the style is simply by looking at the two concepts it’s made of: management and delegation. Management is “the process of dealing with or controlling things or people”. This is perfectly illustrated by the video below: You are essentially ensuring different tasks are done by controlling, managing and directing different types of resources. The resources can be people or finances and equipment you can use to achieve your objectives. All of it also indicates to another essential element of management: power or authority. Management involves a position of authority, in which the person in charge or the manager has the power to make the decisions of controlling, planning and directing. Management is about hierarchy and a framework of authority and control.What about delegation then? The Business Dictionary defines the concept of delegation in terms of management as, “sharing or transfer of authority and the associated responsibility, from an employer or superior to an employee or subordinate”.So, you need to have a specific position of power and due to this, you are able to share or transfer parts of your authority to someone else. In effect, you are taking your managerial position and distributing it to another person or persons. In this sense, delegation is usually a one-way street, flowing from a superior to a subordinate. You canâ €™t really delegate a task or process to someone above you in the hierarchy and terms of power, since you most likely won’t have the authority to do this.Management by delegation is therefore the act of managing by emphasizing delegating. You use the functions of management and instead of doing it all and holding all the power to yourself, you distribute and share the managerial burden and power with your subordinates. For example, instead of planning the tasks to get a new product developed on your own, you might delegate some of the decision-making power to your subordinate. Instead of you setting the deadline for the tasks you’ve established, you tell the team to do this.It’s crucial to understand that management by delegation is by no means just the transfer of doing the tasks to others. Management is about telling Person A to perform Task B, while delegating is telling Person A to be in charge of Task B, including any decisions it might involve. Delegating always requires a transfer of power and the responsibilities that come with it.Nonetheless, there are different levels of delegation. The freedom and responsibility you transfer can differ from the low levels to the highest levels. You might expect the person to perform A by using specific methods or by delegating full decision-making. Here are some of the examples of different levels of delegation and the distribution of freedom:‘Follow the instructions’ â€" Delegation style where you transfer the responsibility to perform a task, but provide clear instructions on how to perform it.‘Provide input’ â€" You transfer the responsibility of performing the tasks and the decision-making involved with it, but provide input on methods, ideas and so on to guide in the process.‘Let’s decide together’ â€" You share the responsibility of decision-making involved with the tasks, although the performance is on the other person’s shoulders. Both have equal say in how things are done.‘I’ll pro vide support’ â€" You transfer all of the responsibility and power to the person, but you are providing any kind of support and guidance the person might want in order to perform the task.‘You decide on methods, but I’ll have final say’ â€" Under this delegation style, you provide the person the ability to present you with ideas and suggestions, but the final decision-making authority remains in your hands. The person can suggest you to use a method A, but if you feel B is better, you can go with it.‘You have full power’ â€" The transfer of completely power and responsibility to the other person.WHY SHOULD YOU DELEGATE?But why waste time and effort to delegate? You might be thinking that doing things on your own is easier and more efficient. Even if you need other people to perform tasks, why would you hand out responsibility or authority? However irreplaceable you might feel, there are clear benefits to delegating tasks.First, you will find delegating an effective tool for focusing your efforts. Being a manager is not an easy role. Management has five common functions, which on its own shows that managers have plenty on their plates. There are plenty of tasks to perform and many responsibilities to look after. The more things you have on your mind, the harder it can be to focus on the most important tasks.By delegating, you are essentially reducing some of your tasks and therefore, creating more room for focusing on the key jobs. Not all tasks are the same in terms of importance or impact. As a manager, you want to focus on the most meaningful roles â€" the ones that help you and the team to achieve better results. By reducing your tasks and handing out the less important roles for others to deal with, you ensure your undivided attention is on achieving the deepest impact.Furthermore, you aren’t just reducing your workload and somehow taking ‘the ease route’. You can also use delegating as a way to boost productivity and employee engagement. When you delegate authority to another person, you are essentially telling them you trust them. You are handing out authority â€" you are telling them they can have more power.This matters because you wouldn’t let anyone do the task or have that power â€" there is always a reason for picking a certain person and in terms of allocating power and responsibility, the reason is typically positive. For the employee, the increased responsibility and the sense of being trusted by the management can lead to a boost in motivation. Think how you have felt when your manager has told you to be in charge of a project or a task? You probably felt proud, sensing the opportunity to show you are worth this trust.In addition to a powerful boost in motivation, delegating can help improve subordinate knowledge. Delegating a bit of responsibility and power to subordinates can act as a development and training tool. The subordinate is able to experience added responsibilities and get a feel of what it might feel like to perform new roles or tasks, without changing positions altogether.In effect, you are only adding slightly to his or her role and providing an opportunity to experience more responsibility. Why does this matter? Well, in terms of succession planning, developing your subordinates in management can guarantee you have a pipeline of talent ready at all times. By delegating some of the managerial responsibilities, you are essentially preparing your next generation of managers.Overall, delegating can help enhance decision-making times. Not only does productivity go up as employees might feel more motivated, but also decisions are made faster as the power isn’t as concentrated. If you, as the manager, are in control of all the decisions, things won’t get done until you agree on the actions. So, if you are the manager in a café and all orders need to be approved by you, you can end up in a situation where there’s not enough products to sell.Let’s say you suddenly have a busy day and you run out of sandwiches faster than you thought. The employees have to first contact you, explain the situation and you need to take the time to order more. On the other hand, if you had just delegated the task of ordering for the senior employee on shift at any point, they can just take note of the situation and order more sandwiches. This would save a lot of time, as well as ensure you don’t need to take the extra time from other work to place the order. WHY DON’T YOU DELEGATE?If the above is true and the benefits are so clear, why is the act of delegating a difficult thing for many of us? Return to your reaction to a new task. Was it that of “I’ll just do it myself” instead of thinking who else might be able to take on the task? Delegating can be so difficult, mainly because we so easily think things are easier if we just do them rather than delegate them forward.This isn’t just about your arrogance, although I will discuss about the self-enhanc ement bias we have. But we can actually think delegating is a lot more time-consuming than just doing things on ourselves. This is because delegation requires plenty of initial preparation.You need to take the action of deciding to delegate, then figure out who you are going to delegate to, and plan the way you are going to delegate (all of the power/responsibility, timetable, etc.). This does seem like a lot of work and it’s easy to think it might be easier to just get it finished yourself.But as I mentioned earlier, we also tend to suffer from the self-enhancement bias. This is essentially the nagging thought we all occasionally have “I can do this better than others”. It’s not necessarily always even wrong. In fact, you might be able to finish things better yourself, but management by delegation was also about developing your subordinates.By doing everything yourself, you aren’t giving anyone else the chance to shine and improve. Therefore, when it comes to delegating, the question shouldn’t necessarily be “Am I the best person to perform this task/role?” but rather, “Is this the best use of my time?”THE 3 CORE QUESTIONS TO GUIDE DELEGATINGHow does management by delegation work in practice? The whole process of delegating can be set up and organized by focusing on three essential questions: when to delegate, who to delegate to and how to delegate.When to delegate?While delegating has clear advantages to you as the manager and to your subordinates, you shouldn’t assume all tasks are worth delegating. So, the first question to answer deals with the topic of when to delegate. To find out whether the situation is suitable for delegation, you should ask a few questions.First, you should determine the suitability of the task for delegating purposes in terms of the value the process of delegating might provide for your team. To figure out the value of delegating versus not delegating, you should answer three questions:Does the success of the task depend on me doing it? Not all thoughts of “I can do it better” are about self-enhancement bias. Sometimes things need your input and full attention as the manager. Therefore, you need to look at the task and honestly examine whether the success of the task requires you to be in charge. Think about the consequences of you doing it on your own or delegating parts of it to someone else.Could someone else be better equipped for doing this task? While you are pondering the first question, you need to start thinking whether or not someone else might be more suited for the role. Perhaps it requires a particular set of skills that someone in your team has. Think about this both in term of information and skills.Does the task create a good training opportunity for someone in the team? But tasks should not just be delegated based on someone’s current skill levels. As I’ve discussed above, it can be useful to consider tasks as a learning opportunity for your team. Therefore, look at the team and the skills the tasks might teach. Perhaps it’s a small job of dealing with third party suppliers and by delegating it to a junior team member, you help them develop negotiating skills.You also need to think about the particular task and its suitability for the process. A task might be a useful development tool and even be performed better by another member of the team, yet still be unsuitable for delegation. This is down to two main considerations:Time constraints. You need to examine the timeline for the task. Delegating takes a lot of initial input. Does the task suffer from taking this time to delegate properly? Do you have enough time to properly delegate it or will it be easier to simply finish it as you can?Impact on organization/team. You should also think about the tasks impact on the organization and its success. Is the task a low- or a high-priority task? If things don’t go according to plan, will the impact be devastating for the business or team? If you have a high-priority task at hand, delegating might not be a good idea, unless you know someone else in the team can perform it better than you can.Who to delegate?Once you’ve determined the task is suitable for delegation, you need to think about whom to delegate. You don’t want to just pick a random team member and tell them, “ready, steady, go”. As a manager, you have two key options for delegating tasks: you either delegate to someone who is well suited to guarantee excellent results or you pick someone who can deliver and gain experience from the process.In both instances, your starting point should be in determining the person’s skillset, availability and willingness to perform the task. So, start by examining the person’s experience, knowledge and skills. Does he or she have the right skills for the role or experience in delivering results in similar tasks? What are the transferable skills he or she can use to get the job done? Even if you use delegation as a development tool, you need to ensure the person has a basic understanding of the task and on getting it done. This step will further help you identify the kind of guidance and support you need to provide.You then need to start examining the person’s availability for the role. Are they currently busy with another project? Would they have enough time to perform the role within the required timeframe? You don’t want to hinder their ability to perform their other tasks or jeopardize the success of the process by burdening them with more work than they can handle.And finally, don’t forget to consider the person’s willingness for performing the task. Would he or she thrive under this added responsibility? Are they looking forward to new tasks and how motivating would they find the experience? You want the person to commit to the delegated process, not feel like it’s a massive burden on them.Brian Tracy, the sales training and personal success coach and author, suggests using tas k-relevant maturity as a determining factor for effective delegating. This means looking at the maturity of your team in terms of how long they’ve been a member of the team/organization and their competency in the current role. If they have low task-relevant maturity, they are probably new and inexperienced.For these situations, a direct delegation style works the best. You want to pick these people if you can or are able to tell exactly what to do and to provide enough support to get things done. When task-relevant maturity is at medium levels, the person has some experience in the role.For these, Tracy recommends delegating with management by objectives approach â€" showing what you want to achieve and allowing them to pick their chosen methods for completing the job. Finally, people who’ve been in the role for a long-time have a high task-relevant maturity. In these cases, you can delegate in any way you like. You can learn more about Tracy’s methods from the below video: H ow to delegate?You’ve now determined the task is worth delegating and you’ve started the process of finding the right person for the role. All that’s left is the actual process of delegation. There are three steps to effective delegation: determining the scope of powers, selecting the person, and supervising and controlling the process.First, you need to establish the scope of powers you are delegating. There are three principles for the process:Identifying the desired outcomes. What do you want to achieve from the delegation? Think this in terms of the goals for the tasks and the objectives for the delegation, i.e. is the emphasis on the result success or in improving the subordinate’s skillset.The constraints of the process. What can the person do without your acknowledgement and authority? In case of trouble, do they inform you first or act to salvage the situation? It’s important to define the boundaries of the person’s authority in relation to the goal at hand. You want to inform them of the rules and regulations that govern their decision-making and performance.The boundaries of the task. Furthermore, define the boundaries of the task and their authority. You want to make them aware of what they need to do and when they need to do it.You essentially want to match the responsibility of the task with the correct level of authority. So, if the job requires little responsibility, it isn’t going to have a big impact no matter what the result, you want to match it with the appropriate level of authority. The ultimate accountability will always be on your hands as the manager.Selecting the right person is almost done, as you’ve already looked at the who of delegation. It’s crucial to remember to ensure you choose a person, who is suited for the role in terms of his or her skillset or who can learn a lot from the role. In addition, as eluded abode, you want to delegate authority to someone at a lower level than yourself.The final step is about supervising and controlling the process. You need to make the level of supervision clear to all parties. How often are you checking up on the progress? Will you want status updates regarding the progress? If so, how often? It can help to clarify the guidance and support available to ensure the person won’t feel left out in the cold or be unaware of when and how to seek help.It’s essential to remember that even though you are delegating responsibilities and authority, the ultimate power remains in your hands. You, as the manager, are ultimately responsible and accountable for the process, even if you have delegated certain tasks to other people.HOW TO SUCCEED WITH MANAGEMENT BY DELEGATION?So, you are now able to start delegating and using the management style to your advantage. While the above shows you the essential steps that lead to delegation, how can you ensure management by delegation is effective? What are the building blocks of success? You need to keep in mind four guidi ng principles to ensure you don’t just delegate, but do so efficiently. These are:Include people in the delegation process. No matter how much authority or power you are delegating as a manager, you want to involve your subordinates in the process. Delegating shouldn’t be decided just by you and then announced to the subordinates. You need to make sure your subordinates are aware of your desire to delegate and aware of the kind of tasks you are thinking of delegating. You want subordinates to have some kind of say in the responsibilities they should take on and perhaps even be able to agree or disagree with the amount of authority and power they should have. By involving people in the delegation process, you ensure they are engaged in the process from the start and guarantee they are aware of the new authority or power they have.Focus on the results not the process. Although you want to be aware of the success and proceedings of the tasks along the way, you shouldn’t be too in volved with the micromanagement â€" after all, you are supposed to be transferring responsibility elsewhere. The key to remember is the result, the so-called big picture. You can give suggestions, but learn to let go a little. Your way of doing things might not always be the best. If you are willing to delegate, you need to be willing to accept different ways of achieving the same results.Motivate and create strong commitment structures. Focus on ensuring delegating is motivating and not fear inducing. You want your subordinates to feel encouraged and engaged to make the extra responsibilities and power a development tool. How can you guarantee this? Ensure successful delegation is rewarding. So, when your subordinate takes on a new responsibility and performs it well, you need to reward them. It doesn’t need to be financial, just proper acknowledgement of a job well done can be enough.Provide feedback along the way. Another important part of management by delegation is feedback. Not only is it key for motivation and commitment, it can also ensure your employees make the most out of the process. Feedback ensures they are able to learn from the experience and use it for improving their talent. But you don’t just want to provide feedback as the manager, but also ensure the people who are part of the whole delegation process are able to give feedback about it. You can improve and enhance the delegation framework and process by asking participants to talk about the good and the bad.FINAL THOUGHTSWhen things get busy, it can be easy to just pass on tasks to other people to do them. On the other hand, you might think you are the only person to clear certain tasks and you find it hard to delegate tasks for other people. But a manager’s role is filled with different things to do and you can’t get everything done on your own.Furthermore, you also can’t just give tasks to random people, as it can be harmful in terms of the success of the project. To ensure thi ngs run smoothly and delegation has a useful purpose as a management function. Management by delegation helps use the power of delegation as a tool for achieving better results and helping people improve their skillset.It gives a lot of focus to your tasks and can ensure a more motivated workforce, as employees are challenged with new responsibilities. So, if you want to make better use of your own time and ensure your subordinates learn new skills, start delegating!

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Why Babies Are Born With Blue Eyes

You may have heard that all babies are born with blue eyes.  You inherit your eye color from your parents, but no matter what the color is now, it may have been blue when you were born. Why? When you were an infant, melanin—the brown pigment molecule that colors your skin, hair, and eyes—hadnt been fully deposited in the irises of your eyes or darkened by exposure to ultraviolet light. The iris is the colored part of the eye that controls the amount of light that is allowed to enter. Like hair and skin, it contains the pigment, possibly to help protect the eye from the sun. How Melanin Affects Eye Color Melanin is a protein. Like other proteins, the amount and type your body produces are coded into your genes. Irises containing a large amount of melanin appear black or brown. Less melanin produces green, gray, or light brown eyes. If your eyes contain very small amounts of melanin, they will appear blue or light gray. People with albinism have no melanin in their irises at all. Their eyes may appear pink because the blood vessels in the back of their eyes reflect light. Melanin production generally increases during the first year of a babys life, leading to a deepening of eye color. The color is often stable by about six months of age, but it may take as long as two years to fully develop. However, several factors can affect eye color, including the use of certain medications and environmental factors. Some people experience changes in eye color over the course of their lives. In some cases, people can even have eyes of two different colors. Even the genetics of eye color inheritance isnt as cut-and-dried as was once thought, as blue-eyed parents have been known (rarely) to have a brown-eyed child. Furthermore, not all babies are born with blue eyes. A baby may start out with gray eyes, even if they ultimately become blue.  Babies of African, Asian, and Hispanic descent are more likely to be born with brown eyes. This is because darker-skinned individuals tend to have more melanin in their eyes than Caucasians. Even so, a babys eye color may deepen over time. Also, blue eyes are still possible for babies of dark-skinned parents. This is more common in preterm babies because melanin deposition takes time. Humans arent the only animals that experience eye color changes. For example,  kittens are often born with blue eyes, too. In cats, the initial eye color change is fairly dramatic because they develop so much more quickly than humans. Feline eye color changes over time even in adult cats, generally stabilizing after a couple of years. Even more interesting, eye color sometimes changes with the seasons. For example, scientists have learned that reindeer eye color changes in the winter. This is so that reindeer can see better in the dark. Its not only their eye color that changes, either. The collagen fibers in the eye change their spacing in the winter to keep the pupil more dilated, allowing the eye to capture as much light as possible.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Porsche Changes Tack - 1008 Words

MINI-CASE 1 Porsche Changes Tack In pursuing the interests of Porsche’s controlling families different from maximizing the returns to its public share owners? Obviously, it is clearly to see that in pursuing the interests of Porsche’s controlling families different from maximizing the returns to its public share owners. Porsche had three major vehicle platforms: the 911, Boxster roadster and the Cayenne. Sales of these can help Growing portfolio, profitable and sustainable business. This is the mainly sources of Porsche’s controlling families ownership s interest , as well as public shareholders. Porsche’s profitability has been extremely impressive over the past decade – particularly for an automaker. Porsche has followed a†¦show more content†¦26). Congress did respond to Enron’s failures and those of other companies by passing SOX in 2002. SOX stands for Sarbanes-Oxley, which now required for key elements, which are paraphrased below: 1. CEO/CFO sign-off of financial statements 2. Audit/Compensation committees must be independent 3. No loans may be given to corporate officers (Tyco had this issue) 4. Proper controls to assess fraud must be in place Although SOX aimed to bring greater accountability to public corporations, it has been costly and not well-accepted globally. Some would believe that this was an isolated incident because the executive leadership not only was unethical in its business dealings but criminal in its operations, and they were able to convince their workers and business associatesto deceive and undermine the systems at play, actively practicing fraudulent transactions, meaning to disguise poor performance and deceive the investors and the public at large. The reality is that prior to this incident there wasnever a case of this magnitude, the perception held by most are that the governance systems then extend from thecorporate walls of companies to the electric barriers of the company’s regulators and the government itself, are full proof. 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Ken Wilber Free Essays

string(50) " embrace and integrate the manifold of phenomena\." The man who, for many years, has been acknowledged by colleagues as the leading theoretician of consciousness and transpersonal psychology, Ken Wilber, was born in 1948 in Oklahoma City, to two devoted parents. Wilber’s intellect has been hailed as truly extraordinary in its penetrating, synthesizing, and discriminative capacities. His knowledge of psychology, philosophy, sociology, comparative religion, mysticism, anthropology, and even â€Å"hard† sciences such as biochemistry and physics is virtually encyclopedic, but, most importantly, he has personal experience with the states and levels of consciousness about which he writes. We will write a custom essay sample on Ken Wilber or any similar topic only for you Order Now Although he certainly should not be viewed as only an intellectual, his affinity for the mental and spiritual realms, as opposed to the bodily and emotional realms, is clear. Likewise, although his passion is greater for transpersonal than prepersonal and personal stages of development, he has nonetheless consistently emphasized the dire need to recognize and embrace a full-spectrum view of consciousness and humanity’s place therein. Life and Major Works Wilber grew up in Lincoln, Nebraska. His father was an air force officer. As a youth, he was absorbed in the world of natural sciences, biology, chemistry and mathematics. Referring to his late high-school and early college days, Wilber notes, â€Å"My mental youth was an idyll of precision and accuracy, a fortress of the clear and evident.† (Wilber 58) His encounter with the Tao-te-Ching changed everything: â€Å"It was as if I were being exposed, for the very first time, to an entirely new and drastically different world -a world beyond the sensical, a world outside of science, and therefore a world quite beyond myself.† (Wilber 58) From here on, the investigation of the world beyond the personal self yet accessible to human consciousness became a passion that involved not just Wilber’s intellect but his entire being. Beginning in his early twenties and continuing to this day, he has taken up training in various contemplative practices such as Zen and Dzogchen (a form of Tibetan Buddhism) that would enable him to walk the terrain he charts in his writings. Wilber dropped out of graduate studies in biochemistry to devote himself fulltime to the pursuit of his research and writing about consciousness. His first major book, The Spectrum of Consciousness written in 1977, was a synthesis of Western psychological theories and therapies with Eastern spiritual disciplines. From this time onward, Wilber supported himself by his own writings, living outside of institutional affiliations and commitments, free to develop and express his own ideas, free to live a lifestyle of contemplation and writing. To balance mental and spiritual work with embodied living, he at times engaged in manual labor, such as working in gas stations (Wilber 88). Several books and over a hundred journal articles soon appeared. The Atman Project 1980 set forth a vastly expanded framework for human development from infancy to adulthood and beyond into transpersonal stages described by diverse contemplative disciplines. Up from Eden (1981b) presented a detailed map of the evolution of the human mind and consciousness within this framework. The popular No Boundary (1981a), explains Wilber’s early ideas in a highly readable style, while some of his more technical works such as Eye to Eye: The Questfor the New Paradigm for the New Paradigm (1990a) discuss the epistemological bases of knowing in the various sciences and how these could be expanded to accommodate the fun spectrum of consciousness. Wilber’s ideas, larger than life and expressed through a powerful and often sharply critical writing style, have left few readers neutral or indifferent. Over the years he has engaged in lively debates with people who have taken issue with his controversial ideas, including other prominent theorists in transpersonal psychology. Most of these debates were carried on in the pages of journals and in his most recent books. Few of his colleagues in transpersonal and consciousness studies have met him in person. To their chagrin, Wilber guards his privacy carefully and rarely makes an appearance in public. He initially accepted invitations to teach, lecture, and give interviews but then quickly pulled back from such activity, as he felt thrown off center by the attention and admiration from his audiences. Regarding this experience, Wilber said in an interview, â€Å"What you get are a lot of people telling you how great you are. Within a short time, you start believing them, and then you’re headed for disaster. I simply did not feel competent to appear in public as a teacher† (Schwartz 186). Getting Wilber to agree even to an interview is not easy. Yet when he does give his time, he gives generously, and to his small circle of close friends. Wilber is known as a devoted friend who can be warm, charming, and funny (Schwartz 204). Wilber’s first marriage to his best friend Amy Wagner in 1972 lasted for nine years, after which they parted ways amicably. Two years later Wilber met and married Treya Killam. One week after the wedding, she was diagnosed with breast cancer. The next five years were spent battling a relentless cancer that eventually claimed her life. During those five years Wilber set aside most of his writing and devoted himself full-time to nurturing Treya and, eventually, to helping her to die. Grace and Grit (1991), which appeared two years after her death, provides a moving account of the emotional and spiritual struggles and transformations in both Wilber and Treya during those trying years. The long hiatus in Wilber’s writing ended in 1995 with the publication of the first volume of a planned three-volume series, Sex, Ecology, and Spirituality: The Spirit of Evolution (SES) (1995b). This 800 page volume was soon followed by two shorter companion works, A Guide to Sex, Ecology, Spirituality (1995a) and A Brief History of Everything (1996). A new chapter had just begun in Wilber’s writing career. Up to this point, the emphasis had been largely on the upward movement of evolution, but in SES the upward movement is balanced by the movement downward: Spirit ascending to higher unities is at the same time Spirit descending to embrace and integrate the manifold of phenomena. You read "Ken Wilber" in category "Essay examples" By Wilber’s own estimation SES is his first mature work. It offers an integral vision that encompasses practically everything humans have ever sought to know or be. Wilber’s Ideas Transpersonal Theory Ken Wilber has been the most influential theorist in transpersonal psychology. Wilber’s developmental model in The Atman Project has the advantage of meshing with developmental psychology and extending it to transpersonal growth. Wilber says that people move through three life stages: pre-personal, personal, and transpersonal growth. The pre-personal stage begins at birth, before a personality is developed. From birth to adolescence the task is to build a personality. In the personal stage the individual’s task is to use the personality in work, relationships, and mature life in the world. In the transpersonal stage, usually beginning in adult life, the person begins to move beyond the external world and explore the inner reaches of the self and spiritual realities. The ultimate purpose is to attain the state of oneness or unity with the consciousness of the universe. Wilber contends that the growth toward these levels of being is a natural movement of the self, an inward arc in contrast to the outward arc that relates to the external world. The Spectrum of Development Development, for Wilber, extends from inanimate matter and primitive life forms through the developmental stages of human consciousness to its farthest reaches as manifested by the mystics and sages of various Eastern and Western spiritual traditions. The stages leading to mature adulthood are familiar enough. They have been charted by theorists such as Jean Piaget, Erik Erikson, Lawrence Kohlberg, and various psychoanalysts. Wilber draws especially from Piaget for the un-foldment of the cognitive and mental capacities and integrates these with the dynamic theories of object-relations psychoanalysis. Wilber identifies four transpersonal stages beyond mature adulthood: psychic, subtle, causal, and ultimate. Through these stages the sense of self or identity becomes more and more flexible and inclusive as self-centrism or narcissism continues to decrease, until at the highest stages of transpersonal development even the subtlest and most inclusive self-structurations are transcended in a sense of identity and connectedness that embraces all. At each stage things can go wrong, and so there is a spectrum of pathology corresponding to the spectrum of development all the way up to the highest transpersonal stages. Wilber discusses treatment modalities for each pathology and calls attention to the importance of correctly discerning levels of pathology for example pre-personal or transpersonal so that appropriate treatment can be chosen. For example, he argues that meditation may not be suitable for borderline and other pre-personal pathologies, whereas for an existential depression or â€Å"dark night of the soul† that may occur in the lower transpersonal stages meditation may be a successful method of treatment. The charting of transpersonal development is undoubtedly Wilber’s most controversial project. It implies that human development is open ended and that some individuals are â€Å"farther along† in development than other people, or that at any given time some people, and perhaps some cultures, have a more encompassing sense of self and a greater capacity for integrating the spectrum of consciousness than others. A number of cultural anthropologists, feminists, and ecophilosophers have criticized Wilber’s theory in this regard. Certainly, the idea of development beyond â€Å"the average well-adjusted† is not new; it was celebrated in Maslow’s notion of the self-actualizer. But in proposing developmental stages beyond self-actualization, Wilber is venturing into ever more rarified realms of human experience where the stakes are set high yet evidence is hard to come by. Nevertheless, it seems fair to say that Wilber’s transpersonal stages have opened up the horizon far beyond anything conceived in Western scientific psychology. This horizon had been there all along, of course, and through the centuries it was explored by the mystics and seers whose anecdotal accounts, couched in religious symbolism and interpretations, only helped to shroud it in impenetrable mystery. For consciousness researchers, Wilber offers a greatly expanded paradigm of scientific inquiry. For those on a spiritual quest, he provides a map for the road. The Three Eyes of Knowing The paradigm of consciousness research has been too narrowly modeled after the empirical sciences, argues Wilber. It can be significantly expanded once we realize that the eye of flesh, that is, our senses aided by laboratory instruments, is just one of the possible ways in which knowledge is gathered. We also have the eye of reason that understands the meaning of text, cultural symbols, and mathematical equations as well as the meaning of the data the eye of flesh observes. Beyond reason, says Wilber, there is the eye of contemplation that intuits directly the nature of reality and of the meanings deciphered by the eye of reason. The Pre/Trans Fallacy Another important concept of Wilber’s that helps clear up misunderstandings regarding the transpersonal domain is what he calls the â€Å"pre/trans fallacy.† This is the failure to distinguish between primitive phenomena of early developmental stages, on the one hand, and insights and experiences that transcend the egoic mode of rational consciousness, on the other. Both types of phenomena are, in their own ways, â€Å"nonrational† and â€Å"nonegoic,† and this is why they can appear similar or even identical. But phenomena of the first type are â€Å"prerational† or â€Å"preegoic,† whereas phenomena of the second type are â€Å"transrational† or â€Å"transegoic.† The pre/trans fallacy can occur in two ways. In the first, â€Å"trans† is reduced to â€Å"pre.† Freud’s interpretation of the â€Å"oceanic feeling† associated with mystical experience as an irrational, regressive urge to return to the womb is a classic example of such a reduction. In general, the dismissal of all spiritual insights as regressive exemplifies the reductionist form of the pre/trans fallacy. In the second form of the fallacy, â€Å"pre† is elevated to â€Å"trans.† The elevationist form of the pre/trans fallacy is evident in the various ways in which prerational experience and modes of expression are promoted in the name of higher personal growth. Wilber’s discussion of the pre/trans fallacy may well be one of his most useful practical contributions to the growing numbers of people searching for a spiritual path or engaging in some form of contemplative practice (Schwartz 260). Often the spiritual search masks primitive longings rooted in early developmental deprivations. On the other hand, sometimes an apparent psychotic break signals a major spiritual breakthrough. An insight into the pre/trans fallacy helps spiritual questers as well as therapists to be more discerning of the nature of the beast they are dealing with. Holism: Restoring Connectedness in the World In his more recent writings, Wilber has articulated his philosophy of holism. To be truly holistic, the vision of a whole must include everything, including itself. But more important, it must integrate and connect all that it embraces. So the issue is not holism versus atomism, but fractured ness versus connectedness. Furthermore, the solution cannot be a matter of articulating the best and most holistic position, for this still leaves out the person proposing or accepting the position. Rather, what is required is a transformation of consciousness within the person, within all of us that shifts the viewpoint from the exterior increasingly to the interior and on to a superior view that is ever more inclusive and connected. Wilber has sounded a powerful call for us to awaken to the evolutionary process taking place within us, within the universe, not in some distant future but right now (Puhakka 152). This evolution is fundamentally open and creative and therefore, at every turn, incomplete and uncertain. We live in systems within systems, contexts within contexts, of indefinitely expanding structures of experiences, meanings, and relationships. These systems are constantly sliding and the contexts shifting, says Wilber. The vision of an open universe unfolding and enfolded upwards and downwards without end effectively removes all bases for certainty and completeness. For many people, the postmodern quicksand world spells despair and a sense of being lost in the ever-shifting contexts that claim power of determination over meaning and values and render human lives pointless and empty. The absolutizing of context is an unfortunate, even if unintended, legacy of much of postmodern thought. Wilber sees the emphasis on context as being appropriate but not going deep enough: We must recognize that the contexts themselves are shifting and evolving, along with everything else. The evolution, we are a part of excludes nothing, not even the contexts that bound our understanding and awareness. Evolution is the journey of the universe toward self-awareness, now through human consciousness that is becoming increasingly aware of its own contexts. Conclusion Ken Wilber is a controversial figure among the late-twentieth-century thinkers on culture and consciousness. The evolution of consciousness is Wilber’s main concern. He finds all of the major sciences, philosophies, and spiritual traditions, both Eastern and Western, relevant to this concern, for they exemplify the process of evolution even as they shed light on it. The light is always partial, however, and how to fit the partial truths together is, for Wilber, the supreme puzzle. A superb synthesizer with ability to absorb and integrate large amounts of information across various disciplines, he sketches the contours of a panoramic vision of evolution as an unfolding of Spirit through matter, life, and mind. Works Cited Engler J. Therapeutic aims in psychotherapy and meditation: Developmental stages in the representation of self. Boston: Shambhala, 1986. Puhakka K. Restoring connectedness in the Kosmos: A healing tale of a deeper order. Humanistic Psychologist, 23 (1995): 373-391. Schwartz T. The full spectrum: Common Boundary. Los Angeles: Tarcher, 1995. Wilber K. The spectrum of consciousness. Wheaton, IL: Quest Books, 1977. Wilber K. The Atman project. Wheaton, IL: Quest Books. 1980. Wilber K. No boundary. Boston: Shambhala, 1981. Wilber K. Odyssey. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 22(1) (1982): 57-90. Wilber K. A sociable God. New York: New Press, 1983. How to cite Ken Wilber, Essay examples

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Ryan Air Pest Analysis Technological Factors

The goal of this paper is to provide a pest analysis of the contribution of technological factors toward the success of Ryan air. This analysis presents various external factors likely to hinder this airline company from normal operations. Expansion in technological factors has led into the adoption of online booking services in Ryan air.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Ryan Air Pest Analysis: Technological Factors specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Expansion of technology is performed with regard to the Porter’s five forces of competition because of the increased competition in the airline industry. To attain a competitive advantage, Ryan air operates a low cost approach. To attain the implicated competitive advantage and at the same time maintain low costs of operations, aircrafts in this company and designed and build by Boeing. Technological factors Technology refers to the process implicated in changing the inputs of a company into outputs: Technological factors for this company revolve around the fleet. Ryan air’s fleet comprises of a collection of 735 aircrafts (Sheth 590). These aircrafts are owned by the company contrary to other airlines that prefer to lease aircrafts. Owning aircrafts as opposed to leasing ensures the capitalization of maintenance costs on the company’s balance sheet. The company sources spare parts and various maintenance services with regard to economies of scale. The importance of technological factors in enhancing the operations of Ryan air Expanding technology enables this company to attain new markets through the use of online booking. These factors enable the company to earn a competitive advantage. Identify mechanisms of reducing costs. Aircraft maintenance services To enhance its commitment toward safety: The company uses very qualified aircraft maintenance personnel. Provides adequate training to aircraft maintenance per sonnel. Adheres to European Union Industry standards. Despite that the company wishes to enhance a cost-effective approach in the maintenance of its fleet, the top management of this company does not explore the low cost strategy with regard to aircraft maintenance. The company acknowledges the use of very qualified personnel and a very effective quality assurance team for the supervision of aircraft maintenance services. The company strictly adheres to the regulations of the European standards of aircraft maintenance alongside standards formulated in the European Aviation Safety Agency (Data monitor 1-3). Besides forming part of the EASA with regard to 145/JAR, this airline is an approved contractor of aircraft maintenance services. Most of the routine aircraft maintenance services are performed by the company itself. In addition, the company conducts constant checks on its fleet. The checks are performed before take-off and during transit at some of its major bases. Most of the re pair and aircraft maintenance services required when its aircrafts are within any of airports served by the company are offered with regard to the provisions of the Part 145/JAR 145. These provisions cater for aircraft maintenance provision contracts. Most of the company’s fleet return to its bases every evening for examination by qualified engineers. In 2002 the company indicated plans to expand its aircraft in-house maintenance potential by developing two-bay hangar services in one of its bases in Glasgow (Davey 1-2). This facility was meant to enhance light C checks on its fleet. In 2003, the facility launched its operations. At the moment, this facility has been developed further to cater for A checks on the company’s 737-800 aircraft. In addition, the facility can perform two light C-checks in a week (Alle and Schmitz 145). This enables the company to enhance in-house flight checks. However, the company does not have the full potential to conduct most of the heav y maintenance checks. This explains why it is considering the possibility of engaging service providers from Poland, Venezuela, and Turkey. Current service providers on aircraft maintenance services contracted by Ryan Air To enhance the provision of adequate aircraft engine maintenance, Ryan air entered into a 10-year engine maintenance agreement with General Electric (GE). The agreement was an inclusive aircraft maintenance contract involving engine overhaul and repair. This contract was to cover repair and maintenance of CFM56-7 engines used in most of its Boeing aircrafts, especially the 737-800 fleets. This agreement was geared at enhancing partnership between GE and Ryan air for the purpose of promoting a wide access to quality aircraft engine maintenance at relatively reduced costs. Aircraft maintenance services in Venezuela The aviation industry in Venezuela has undergone rapid expansion with numerous aircraft maintenance providers. Among the major service providers are Eli te Air Services. This company offers;Advertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Cargo and commercial passenger aircraft maintenance services. Other services offered by this service provider include Provision of Marshall Procedures. Corrective procedures for maintaining aircraft parts. Aircraft quality assurance inspection Routine servicing of aircraft Trains and offers skilled personnel to help the flight crew. Additional services include Inspecting fuel appliances. Fuelling and defueling of planes. Aircraft manual revisions. Aircraft maintenance services in Turkey There are two major aircraft maintenance facilities at Ankara Guvercinlik airport. The first hangar facility is located between Sefakoy and Yesilkoy (Jiang 431). Unlike, Poland, and Venezuela, Turkey has a long history of aircraft maintenance. The maintenance services offered in Turkey are diversified and ca n accommodate different types of aircrafts. The maintenance services in Turkey have been approved by the Joint Aviation Association. This association established the compliance of the aircraft maintenance services in Turkey to stipulated regulations. The Turkish airline received a certificate of compliance to the Joint aviation regulations in 1996 and is authorized to provide international aircraft maintenance services. Aircraft Maintenance Services in Poland Most of the airline maintenance services in Poland are provided by both state and private service providers. Among major service providers are ARP, a state owned corporation that has acquired most shares in nearly all aircraft maintenance service companies. Aircraft maintenance service provision in this region is not very developed and offers limited international services. Conclusion Aircraft maintenance is an essential determinant of flight safety, which adds on to determine the competitive advantage of an airline company. This possibly explains why Ryan air is willing to invest heavily in aircraft maintenance despite operating a low cost approach in its major service provision. The choice of this company to invest in Boeing aircrafts is an added advantage with regard to enhancing the competitive advantage. To foster the safety of passengers and the durability of its aircrafts, the company uses its highly qualified aircraft maintenance personnel to perform in-house checks. In addition, the company has also outsourced services of other companies, such as GE to perform major engine checks. The choice of an appropriate service provider will enhance safety and quality service provision. Considering, Venezuela, Poland, and Turkey, the later has a better range of aircraft maintenance services to offer. Works Cited Alle, Michael, and William Schmitz. â€Å"Ryanair plc.† Sà ©minaire d’elaboration d’un Business Plan 2004: 1-45. Print. Data Monitor. Ryan air holdings plc. Data Monitor Eur ope: London, 2008. Print. Davey, Jenny. â€Å"Ryanair has earned its wings – investors should set autopilot.† The Times, 6 January 2006:1. Print. Jiang, Hudson. â€Å"Competitive strategy for low-cost airlines.† Asia Pacific Management Conference 13.1 (2007): 431-436. Print.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Ryan Air Pest Analysis: Technological Factors specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Sheth, John. â€Å"The future of relationship marketing.† Journal of Services Marketing 16.7 (2002): 590-592. Print. 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