Thursday, May 21, 2020

Why Babies Are Born With Blue Eyes

You may have heard that all babies are born with blue eyes.  You inherit your eye color from your parents, but no matter what the color is now, it may have been blue when you were born. Why? When you were an infant, melanin—the brown pigment molecule that colors your skin, hair, and eyes—hadnt been fully deposited in the irises of your eyes or darkened by exposure to ultraviolet light. The iris is the colored part of the eye that controls the amount of light that is allowed to enter. Like hair and skin, it contains the pigment, possibly to help protect the eye from the sun. How Melanin Affects Eye Color Melanin is a protein. Like other proteins, the amount and type your body produces are coded into your genes. Irises containing a large amount of melanin appear black or brown. Less melanin produces green, gray, or light brown eyes. If your eyes contain very small amounts of melanin, they will appear blue or light gray. People with albinism have no melanin in their irises at all. Their eyes may appear pink because the blood vessels in the back of their eyes reflect light. Melanin production generally increases during the first year of a babys life, leading to a deepening of eye color. The color is often stable by about six months of age, but it may take as long as two years to fully develop. However, several factors can affect eye color, including the use of certain medications and environmental factors. Some people experience changes in eye color over the course of their lives. In some cases, people can even have eyes of two different colors. Even the genetics of eye color inheritance isnt as cut-and-dried as was once thought, as blue-eyed parents have been known (rarely) to have a brown-eyed child. Furthermore, not all babies are born with blue eyes. A baby may start out with gray eyes, even if they ultimately become blue.  Babies of African, Asian, and Hispanic descent are more likely to be born with brown eyes. This is because darker-skinned individuals tend to have more melanin in their eyes than Caucasians. Even so, a babys eye color may deepen over time. Also, blue eyes are still possible for babies of dark-skinned parents. This is more common in preterm babies because melanin deposition takes time. Humans arent the only animals that experience eye color changes. For example,  kittens are often born with blue eyes, too. In cats, the initial eye color change is fairly dramatic because they develop so much more quickly than humans. Feline eye color changes over time even in adult cats, generally stabilizing after a couple of years. Even more interesting, eye color sometimes changes with the seasons. For example, scientists have learned that reindeer eye color changes in the winter. This is so that reindeer can see better in the dark. Its not only their eye color that changes, either. The collagen fibers in the eye change their spacing in the winter to keep the pupil more dilated, allowing the eye to capture as much light as possible.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Porsche Changes Tack - 1008 Words

MINI-CASE 1 Porsche Changes Tack In pursuing the interests of Porsche’s controlling families different from maximizing the returns to its public share owners? Obviously, it is clearly to see that in pursuing the interests of Porsche’s controlling families different from maximizing the returns to its public share owners. Porsche had three major vehicle platforms: the 911, Boxster roadster and the Cayenne. Sales of these can help Growing portfolio, profitable and sustainable business. This is the mainly sources of Porsche’s controlling families ownership s interest , as well as public shareholders. Porsche’s profitability has been extremely impressive over the past decade – particularly for an automaker. Porsche has followed a†¦show more content†¦26). Congress did respond to Enron’s failures and those of other companies by passing SOX in 2002. SOX stands for Sarbanes-Oxley, which now required for key elements, which are paraphrased below: 1. CEO/CFO sign-off of financial statements 2. Audit/Compensation committees must be independent 3. No loans may be given to corporate officers (Tyco had this issue) 4. Proper controls to assess fraud must be in place Although SOX aimed to bring greater accountability to public corporations, it has been costly and not well-accepted globally. Some would believe that this was an isolated incident because the executive leadership not only was unethical in its business dealings but criminal in its operations, and they were able to convince their workers and business associatesto deceive and undermine the systems at play, actively practicing fraudulent transactions, meaning to disguise poor performance and deceive the investors and the public at large. The reality is that prior to this incident there wasnever a case of this magnitude, the perception held by most are that the governance systems then extend from thecorporate walls of companies to the electric barriers of the company’s regulators and the government itself, are full proof. 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Ken Wilber Free Essays

string(50) " embrace and integrate the manifold of phenomena\." The man who, for many years, has been acknowledged by colleagues as the leading theoretician of consciousness and transpersonal psychology, Ken Wilber, was born in 1948 in Oklahoma City, to two devoted parents. Wilber’s intellect has been hailed as truly extraordinary in its penetrating, synthesizing, and discriminative capacities. His knowledge of psychology, philosophy, sociology, comparative religion, mysticism, anthropology, and even â€Å"hard† sciences such as biochemistry and physics is virtually encyclopedic, but, most importantly, he has personal experience with the states and levels of consciousness about which he writes. We will write a custom essay sample on Ken Wilber or any similar topic only for you Order Now Although he certainly should not be viewed as only an intellectual, his affinity for the mental and spiritual realms, as opposed to the bodily and emotional realms, is clear. Likewise, although his passion is greater for transpersonal than prepersonal and personal stages of development, he has nonetheless consistently emphasized the dire need to recognize and embrace a full-spectrum view of consciousness and humanity’s place therein. Life and Major Works Wilber grew up in Lincoln, Nebraska. His father was an air force officer. As a youth, he was absorbed in the world of natural sciences, biology, chemistry and mathematics. Referring to his late high-school and early college days, Wilber notes, â€Å"My mental youth was an idyll of precision and accuracy, a fortress of the clear and evident.† (Wilber 58) His encounter with the Tao-te-Ching changed everything: â€Å"It was as if I were being exposed, for the very first time, to an entirely new and drastically different world -a world beyond the sensical, a world outside of science, and therefore a world quite beyond myself.† (Wilber 58) From here on, the investigation of the world beyond the personal self yet accessible to human consciousness became a passion that involved not just Wilber’s intellect but his entire being. Beginning in his early twenties and continuing to this day, he has taken up training in various contemplative practices such as Zen and Dzogchen (a form of Tibetan Buddhism) that would enable him to walk the terrain he charts in his writings. Wilber dropped out of graduate studies in biochemistry to devote himself fulltime to the pursuit of his research and writing about consciousness. His first major book, The Spectrum of Consciousness written in 1977, was a synthesis of Western psychological theories and therapies with Eastern spiritual disciplines. From this time onward, Wilber supported himself by his own writings, living outside of institutional affiliations and commitments, free to develop and express his own ideas, free to live a lifestyle of contemplation and writing. To balance mental and spiritual work with embodied living, he at times engaged in manual labor, such as working in gas stations (Wilber 88). Several books and over a hundred journal articles soon appeared. The Atman Project 1980 set forth a vastly expanded framework for human development from infancy to adulthood and beyond into transpersonal stages described by diverse contemplative disciplines. Up from Eden (1981b) presented a detailed map of the evolution of the human mind and consciousness within this framework. The popular No Boundary (1981a), explains Wilber’s early ideas in a highly readable style, while some of his more technical works such as Eye to Eye: The Questfor the New Paradigm for the New Paradigm (1990a) discuss the epistemological bases of knowing in the various sciences and how these could be expanded to accommodate the fun spectrum of consciousness. Wilber’s ideas, larger than life and expressed through a powerful and often sharply critical writing style, have left few readers neutral or indifferent. Over the years he has engaged in lively debates with people who have taken issue with his controversial ideas, including other prominent theorists in transpersonal psychology. Most of these debates were carried on in the pages of journals and in his most recent books. Few of his colleagues in transpersonal and consciousness studies have met him in person. To their chagrin, Wilber guards his privacy carefully and rarely makes an appearance in public. He initially accepted invitations to teach, lecture, and give interviews but then quickly pulled back from such activity, as he felt thrown off center by the attention and admiration from his audiences. Regarding this experience, Wilber said in an interview, â€Å"What you get are a lot of people telling you how great you are. Within a short time, you start believing them, and then you’re headed for disaster. I simply did not feel competent to appear in public as a teacher† (Schwartz 186). Getting Wilber to agree even to an interview is not easy. Yet when he does give his time, he gives generously, and to his small circle of close friends. Wilber is known as a devoted friend who can be warm, charming, and funny (Schwartz 204). Wilber’s first marriage to his best friend Amy Wagner in 1972 lasted for nine years, after which they parted ways amicably. Two years later Wilber met and married Treya Killam. One week after the wedding, she was diagnosed with breast cancer. The next five years were spent battling a relentless cancer that eventually claimed her life. During those five years Wilber set aside most of his writing and devoted himself full-time to nurturing Treya and, eventually, to helping her to die. Grace and Grit (1991), which appeared two years after her death, provides a moving account of the emotional and spiritual struggles and transformations in both Wilber and Treya during those trying years. The long hiatus in Wilber’s writing ended in 1995 with the publication of the first volume of a planned three-volume series, Sex, Ecology, and Spirituality: The Spirit of Evolution (SES) (1995b). This 800 page volume was soon followed by two shorter companion works, A Guide to Sex, Ecology, Spirituality (1995a) and A Brief History of Everything (1996). A new chapter had just begun in Wilber’s writing career. Up to this point, the emphasis had been largely on the upward movement of evolution, but in SES the upward movement is balanced by the movement downward: Spirit ascending to higher unities is at the same time Spirit descending to embrace and integrate the manifold of phenomena. You read "Ken Wilber" in category "Essay examples" By Wilber’s own estimation SES is his first mature work. It offers an integral vision that encompasses practically everything humans have ever sought to know or be. Wilber’s Ideas Transpersonal Theory Ken Wilber has been the most influential theorist in transpersonal psychology. Wilber’s developmental model in The Atman Project has the advantage of meshing with developmental psychology and extending it to transpersonal growth. Wilber says that people move through three life stages: pre-personal, personal, and transpersonal growth. The pre-personal stage begins at birth, before a personality is developed. From birth to adolescence the task is to build a personality. In the personal stage the individual’s task is to use the personality in work, relationships, and mature life in the world. In the transpersonal stage, usually beginning in adult life, the person begins to move beyond the external world and explore the inner reaches of the self and spiritual realities. The ultimate purpose is to attain the state of oneness or unity with the consciousness of the universe. Wilber contends that the growth toward these levels of being is a natural movement of the self, an inward arc in contrast to the outward arc that relates to the external world. The Spectrum of Development Development, for Wilber, extends from inanimate matter and primitive life forms through the developmental stages of human consciousness to its farthest reaches as manifested by the mystics and sages of various Eastern and Western spiritual traditions. The stages leading to mature adulthood are familiar enough. They have been charted by theorists such as Jean Piaget, Erik Erikson, Lawrence Kohlberg, and various psychoanalysts. Wilber draws especially from Piaget for the un-foldment of the cognitive and mental capacities and integrates these with the dynamic theories of object-relations psychoanalysis. Wilber identifies four transpersonal stages beyond mature adulthood: psychic, subtle, causal, and ultimate. Through these stages the sense of self or identity becomes more and more flexible and inclusive as self-centrism or narcissism continues to decrease, until at the highest stages of transpersonal development even the subtlest and most inclusive self-structurations are transcended in a sense of identity and connectedness that embraces all. At each stage things can go wrong, and so there is a spectrum of pathology corresponding to the spectrum of development all the way up to the highest transpersonal stages. Wilber discusses treatment modalities for each pathology and calls attention to the importance of correctly discerning levels of pathology for example pre-personal or transpersonal so that appropriate treatment can be chosen. For example, he argues that meditation may not be suitable for borderline and other pre-personal pathologies, whereas for an existential depression or â€Å"dark night of the soul† that may occur in the lower transpersonal stages meditation may be a successful method of treatment. The charting of transpersonal development is undoubtedly Wilber’s most controversial project. It implies that human development is open ended and that some individuals are â€Å"farther along† in development than other people, or that at any given time some people, and perhaps some cultures, have a more encompassing sense of self and a greater capacity for integrating the spectrum of consciousness than others. A number of cultural anthropologists, feminists, and ecophilosophers have criticized Wilber’s theory in this regard. Certainly, the idea of development beyond â€Å"the average well-adjusted† is not new; it was celebrated in Maslow’s notion of the self-actualizer. But in proposing developmental stages beyond self-actualization, Wilber is venturing into ever more rarified realms of human experience where the stakes are set high yet evidence is hard to come by. Nevertheless, it seems fair to say that Wilber’s transpersonal stages have opened up the horizon far beyond anything conceived in Western scientific psychology. This horizon had been there all along, of course, and through the centuries it was explored by the mystics and seers whose anecdotal accounts, couched in religious symbolism and interpretations, only helped to shroud it in impenetrable mystery. For consciousness researchers, Wilber offers a greatly expanded paradigm of scientific inquiry. For those on a spiritual quest, he provides a map for the road. The Three Eyes of Knowing The paradigm of consciousness research has been too narrowly modeled after the empirical sciences, argues Wilber. It can be significantly expanded once we realize that the eye of flesh, that is, our senses aided by laboratory instruments, is just one of the possible ways in which knowledge is gathered. We also have the eye of reason that understands the meaning of text, cultural symbols, and mathematical equations as well as the meaning of the data the eye of flesh observes. Beyond reason, says Wilber, there is the eye of contemplation that intuits directly the nature of reality and of the meanings deciphered by the eye of reason. The Pre/Trans Fallacy Another important concept of Wilber’s that helps clear up misunderstandings regarding the transpersonal domain is what he calls the â€Å"pre/trans fallacy.† This is the failure to distinguish between primitive phenomena of early developmental stages, on the one hand, and insights and experiences that transcend the egoic mode of rational consciousness, on the other. Both types of phenomena are, in their own ways, â€Å"nonrational† and â€Å"nonegoic,† and this is why they can appear similar or even identical. But phenomena of the first type are â€Å"prerational† or â€Å"preegoic,† whereas phenomena of the second type are â€Å"transrational† or â€Å"transegoic.† The pre/trans fallacy can occur in two ways. In the first, â€Å"trans† is reduced to â€Å"pre.† Freud’s interpretation of the â€Å"oceanic feeling† associated with mystical experience as an irrational, regressive urge to return to the womb is a classic example of such a reduction. In general, the dismissal of all spiritual insights as regressive exemplifies the reductionist form of the pre/trans fallacy. In the second form of the fallacy, â€Å"pre† is elevated to â€Å"trans.† The elevationist form of the pre/trans fallacy is evident in the various ways in which prerational experience and modes of expression are promoted in the name of higher personal growth. Wilber’s discussion of the pre/trans fallacy may well be one of his most useful practical contributions to the growing numbers of people searching for a spiritual path or engaging in some form of contemplative practice (Schwartz 260). Often the spiritual search masks primitive longings rooted in early developmental deprivations. On the other hand, sometimes an apparent psychotic break signals a major spiritual breakthrough. An insight into the pre/trans fallacy helps spiritual questers as well as therapists to be more discerning of the nature of the beast they are dealing with. Holism: Restoring Connectedness in the World In his more recent writings, Wilber has articulated his philosophy of holism. To be truly holistic, the vision of a whole must include everything, including itself. But more important, it must integrate and connect all that it embraces. So the issue is not holism versus atomism, but fractured ness versus connectedness. Furthermore, the solution cannot be a matter of articulating the best and most holistic position, for this still leaves out the person proposing or accepting the position. Rather, what is required is a transformation of consciousness within the person, within all of us that shifts the viewpoint from the exterior increasingly to the interior and on to a superior view that is ever more inclusive and connected. Wilber has sounded a powerful call for us to awaken to the evolutionary process taking place within us, within the universe, not in some distant future but right now (Puhakka 152). This evolution is fundamentally open and creative and therefore, at every turn, incomplete and uncertain. We live in systems within systems, contexts within contexts, of indefinitely expanding structures of experiences, meanings, and relationships. These systems are constantly sliding and the contexts shifting, says Wilber. The vision of an open universe unfolding and enfolded upwards and downwards without end effectively removes all bases for certainty and completeness. For many people, the postmodern quicksand world spells despair and a sense of being lost in the ever-shifting contexts that claim power of determination over meaning and values and render human lives pointless and empty. The absolutizing of context is an unfortunate, even if unintended, legacy of much of postmodern thought. Wilber sees the emphasis on context as being appropriate but not going deep enough: We must recognize that the contexts themselves are shifting and evolving, along with everything else. The evolution, we are a part of excludes nothing, not even the contexts that bound our understanding and awareness. Evolution is the journey of the universe toward self-awareness, now through human consciousness that is becoming increasingly aware of its own contexts. Conclusion Ken Wilber is a controversial figure among the late-twentieth-century thinkers on culture and consciousness. The evolution of consciousness is Wilber’s main concern. He finds all of the major sciences, philosophies, and spiritual traditions, both Eastern and Western, relevant to this concern, for they exemplify the process of evolution even as they shed light on it. The light is always partial, however, and how to fit the partial truths together is, for Wilber, the supreme puzzle. A superb synthesizer with ability to absorb and integrate large amounts of information across various disciplines, he sketches the contours of a panoramic vision of evolution as an unfolding of Spirit through matter, life, and mind. Works Cited Engler J. Therapeutic aims in psychotherapy and meditation: Developmental stages in the representation of self. Boston: Shambhala, 1986. Puhakka K. Restoring connectedness in the Kosmos: A healing tale of a deeper order. Humanistic Psychologist, 23 (1995): 373-391. Schwartz T. The full spectrum: Common Boundary. Los Angeles: Tarcher, 1995. Wilber K. The spectrum of consciousness. Wheaton, IL: Quest Books, 1977. Wilber K. The Atman project. Wheaton, IL: Quest Books. 1980. Wilber K. No boundary. Boston: Shambhala, 1981. Wilber K. Odyssey. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 22(1) (1982): 57-90. Wilber K. A sociable God. New York: New Press, 1983. How to cite Ken Wilber, Essay examples

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Ryan Air Pest Analysis Technological Factors

The goal of this paper is to provide a pest analysis of the contribution of technological factors toward the success of Ryan air. This analysis presents various external factors likely to hinder this airline company from normal operations. Expansion in technological factors has led into the adoption of online booking services in Ryan air.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Ryan Air Pest Analysis: Technological Factors specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Expansion of technology is performed with regard to the Porter’s five forces of competition because of the increased competition in the airline industry. To attain a competitive advantage, Ryan air operates a low cost approach. To attain the implicated competitive advantage and at the same time maintain low costs of operations, aircrafts in this company and designed and build by Boeing. Technological factors Technology refers to the process implicated in changing the inputs of a company into outputs: Technological factors for this company revolve around the fleet. Ryan air’s fleet comprises of a collection of 735 aircrafts (Sheth 590). These aircrafts are owned by the company contrary to other airlines that prefer to lease aircrafts. Owning aircrafts as opposed to leasing ensures the capitalization of maintenance costs on the company’s balance sheet. The company sources spare parts and various maintenance services with regard to economies of scale. The importance of technological factors in enhancing the operations of Ryan air Expanding technology enables this company to attain new markets through the use of online booking. These factors enable the company to earn a competitive advantage. Identify mechanisms of reducing costs. Aircraft maintenance services To enhance its commitment toward safety: The company uses very qualified aircraft maintenance personnel. Provides adequate training to aircraft maintenance per sonnel. Adheres to European Union Industry standards. Despite that the company wishes to enhance a cost-effective approach in the maintenance of its fleet, the top management of this company does not explore the low cost strategy with regard to aircraft maintenance. The company acknowledges the use of very qualified personnel and a very effective quality assurance team for the supervision of aircraft maintenance services. The company strictly adheres to the regulations of the European standards of aircraft maintenance alongside standards formulated in the European Aviation Safety Agency (Data monitor 1-3). Besides forming part of the EASA with regard to 145/JAR, this airline is an approved contractor of aircraft maintenance services. Most of the routine aircraft maintenance services are performed by the company itself. In addition, the company conducts constant checks on its fleet. The checks are performed before take-off and during transit at some of its major bases. Most of the re pair and aircraft maintenance services required when its aircrafts are within any of airports served by the company are offered with regard to the provisions of the Part 145/JAR 145. These provisions cater for aircraft maintenance provision contracts. Most of the company’s fleet return to its bases every evening for examination by qualified engineers. In 2002 the company indicated plans to expand its aircraft in-house maintenance potential by developing two-bay hangar services in one of its bases in Glasgow (Davey 1-2). This facility was meant to enhance light C checks on its fleet. In 2003, the facility launched its operations. At the moment, this facility has been developed further to cater for A checks on the company’s 737-800 aircraft. In addition, the facility can perform two light C-checks in a week (Alle and Schmitz 145). This enables the company to enhance in-house flight checks. However, the company does not have the full potential to conduct most of the heav y maintenance checks. This explains why it is considering the possibility of engaging service providers from Poland, Venezuela, and Turkey. Current service providers on aircraft maintenance services contracted by Ryan Air To enhance the provision of adequate aircraft engine maintenance, Ryan air entered into a 10-year engine maintenance agreement with General Electric (GE). The agreement was an inclusive aircraft maintenance contract involving engine overhaul and repair. This contract was to cover repair and maintenance of CFM56-7 engines used in most of its Boeing aircrafts, especially the 737-800 fleets. This agreement was geared at enhancing partnership between GE and Ryan air for the purpose of promoting a wide access to quality aircraft engine maintenance at relatively reduced costs. Aircraft maintenance services in Venezuela The aviation industry in Venezuela has undergone rapid expansion with numerous aircraft maintenance providers. Among the major service providers are Eli te Air Services. This company offers;Advertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Cargo and commercial passenger aircraft maintenance services. Other services offered by this service provider include Provision of Marshall Procedures. Corrective procedures for maintaining aircraft parts. Aircraft quality assurance inspection Routine servicing of aircraft Trains and offers skilled personnel to help the flight crew. Additional services include Inspecting fuel appliances. Fuelling and defueling of planes. Aircraft manual revisions. Aircraft maintenance services in Turkey There are two major aircraft maintenance facilities at Ankara Guvercinlik airport. The first hangar facility is located between Sefakoy and Yesilkoy (Jiang 431). Unlike, Poland, and Venezuela, Turkey has a long history of aircraft maintenance. The maintenance services offered in Turkey are diversified and ca n accommodate different types of aircrafts. The maintenance services in Turkey have been approved by the Joint Aviation Association. This association established the compliance of the aircraft maintenance services in Turkey to stipulated regulations. The Turkish airline received a certificate of compliance to the Joint aviation regulations in 1996 and is authorized to provide international aircraft maintenance services. Aircraft Maintenance Services in Poland Most of the airline maintenance services in Poland are provided by both state and private service providers. Among major service providers are ARP, a state owned corporation that has acquired most shares in nearly all aircraft maintenance service companies. Aircraft maintenance service provision in this region is not very developed and offers limited international services. Conclusion Aircraft maintenance is an essential determinant of flight safety, which adds on to determine the competitive advantage of an airline company. This possibly explains why Ryan air is willing to invest heavily in aircraft maintenance despite operating a low cost approach in its major service provision. The choice of this company to invest in Boeing aircrafts is an added advantage with regard to enhancing the competitive advantage. To foster the safety of passengers and the durability of its aircrafts, the company uses its highly qualified aircraft maintenance personnel to perform in-house checks. In addition, the company has also outsourced services of other companies, such as GE to perform major engine checks. The choice of an appropriate service provider will enhance safety and quality service provision. Considering, Venezuela, Poland, and Turkey, the later has a better range of aircraft maintenance services to offer. Works Cited Alle, Michael, and William Schmitz. â€Å"Ryanair plc.† Sà ©minaire d’elaboration d’un Business Plan 2004: 1-45. Print. Data Monitor. Ryan air holdings plc. Data Monitor Eur ope: London, 2008. Print. Davey, Jenny. â€Å"Ryanair has earned its wings – investors should set autopilot.† The Times, 6 January 2006:1. Print. Jiang, Hudson. â€Å"Competitive strategy for low-cost airlines.† Asia Pacific Management Conference 13.1 (2007): 431-436. Print.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Ryan Air Pest Analysis: Technological Factors specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Sheth, John. â€Å"The future of relationship marketing.† Journal of Services Marketing 16.7 (2002): 590-592. Print. This research paper on Ryan Air Pest Analysis: Technological Factors was written and submitted by user Colin Taylor to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Business Project Essays - Economy, Business, Strategic Management

Business Project Essays - Economy, Business, Strategic Management Business Project Writing a Business Plan Task You are the managing director of a start up company. The company has been in existence for 18 months and you now feel that you have a reasonable customer base. Until now you have been working from home and have only had one other person to help you with orders. Now you feel it is time to expand and you can only do that by obtaining finance. You have some people in mind to take on managerial roles but you know that to raise enough finance to employ them you will need to persuade a bank that you are a worthwhile risk. You feel sure that with a well written business plan this can be achieved. You can decide what the company does, who the management team is and what products/services it makes/provides. Sections you will need to include: 1. Management Team Plan a) Who is your management team (You can make this up, minimum of 5 including yourself) b) What positions do they hold c) What skills do they possess. d) What personality traits might they have. (8 marks) 2. Company Description a) Define your business concept b) Establish clear, measurable goals c) Define your target market d) Reasons for starting the business e) Describe the Entrepreneurial Opportunity (10 marks) 3. Product and Service Plan a) Identify the key products and services you will provide b) What are the key features and benefits your products/services will provide to customers c) Unique Selling Proposition- What is it, what is the value proposition that customer groups have. d) Describe Competitors Products e) Describe your products/services (8 marks) 4. Vision and Mission Statement a) What is the organizational culture of your business? b) What is your vision statement? c) What is your mission statement? (10 marks) 5. Organizational Plan a) What is your businesses organizational ethics? b) Provide an organizational chart for your company. c) Write job descriptions and job specifications for your management team. d) What legal structure will your business take? e) What legal requirements might there be for your business? (10 marks) 6. Marketing Plan Consider your USP. From this briefly describe your: a) Place Strategy b) Promotion Strategy c) Price Strategy d) Product Strategy (8 marks) 7. Growth Plan a) Describe your Growth Strategies b) Describe the effects of your Growth Plan on your Mission Statement c) Describe the effects of Growth on Operational and Strategic Plans (10 marks) 8. SWOT Analysis Prepare a SWOT analysis that identifies your company's strengths and weaknesses. It must also identify opportunities from your company's strengths or elsewhere and also threats to your company's success and survival. (10 marks) 9. Executive Summary Write a summary of your business plan that briefly explains the business concept, why it will be successful, and what it will take to accomplish your goals. Briefly explain the financing required and what investors will receive in return for supporting your business. (6 marks) (Total Marks 80) NB: This project is worth 20% of your term grade. Some class time will be allocated to working on this but the majority will be done as homework. A rubric will be created but the bands will be paired eg if a category is out of 8, then it will be 7-8, 5-6, 3-4, 1-2 with descriptors ranging from excellent standard to no standard displayed. Some sections of the project cover topics we have not as yet covered. I will be lenient to a certain extent when marking those sections but would advise students to research them well as we will be covering them in depth over the coming months. This is also a good opportunity for you all to improve your research and analysis skills, plus writing and presentation, so treat this as a very serious practice run. I look forward to receiving your project.

Monday, March 2, 2020

Visa G4 para trabajar en organizaciones internacionales

Visa G4 para trabajar en organizaciones internacionales La visa G-4 permite a una persona extranjera vivir en Estados Unidos para trabajar en una organizacià ³n internacional como la ONU, el FMI o la OEA. En comparacià ³n con otras visas de trabajo, la G-4 ofrece notables ventajas en materia de là ­mite de tiempo, impuestos y familiares que pueden acompaà ±ar a su titular. Tiene cierto parecido con la visa A  para diplomticos pero es diferente. Quià ©nes pueden solicitar la visa G-4 Los extranjeros con contrato de trabajo en una organizacià ³n internacional ubicada en EE.UU. Adems, este mismo tipo de visa se otorga a las personas que conforman el hogar familiar de la persona contratada: su cà ³nyuge, los hijos de cualquier edad, los hijos de la pareja y, en algunos casos muy limitados, los padres e incluso otros familiares cercanos. Validez de la visa G-4 y transfer La visa G-4 es vlida por el tiempo que seà ±ala la misma. Adems, se puede prorrogar sucesivamente sin là ­mite de aà ±os. En los 60 dà ­as anteriores a que la visa expire, se tramita su extensià ³n sin necesidad de salir del paà ­s. Se puede transferir de una organizacià ³n internacional a otra, por ejemplo, de trabajar en Naciones Unidas pasar a ser un empleado del Fondo Monetario Internacional. Para ello debe cancelarse con el Departamento de Estado la registracià ³n con la institucià ³n original y registrarse con la nueva. Permiso de trabajo para familiares de titulares visa G-4 En algunos casos, los familiares que acompaà ±an a EEUU a la persona contratada por la organizacià ³n internacional pueden trabajar. Para ello necesitan obtener previamente un permiso de trabajo, que se conoce por las siglas EAD. Debe solicitarse al USCIS, que sà ³lo los concede en los casos de nacionales de paà ­ses que tienen un tratado de reciprocidad con Estados Unidos. Los permisos de trabajo se aprueban para el cà ³nyuge o pareja, los hijos solteros menores de 21 aà ±os, o de 23 si estn estudiando a tiempo completo en la universidad. Si tuviesen una minusvalà ­a fà ­sica o mental no se aplica el là ­mite de edad, siempre y cuando sean solteros. Por otra parte, los hijos de extranjeros con visa G-4 pueden estudiar la educacià ³n primaria y secundaria. Para los recià ©n llegados, estos son las reglas bsicas del sistema educativo de los Estados Unidos. Impuestos de titulares de la visa G-4 Adems, otra de las ventajas de la visa G-4 es que no se tributa en EEUU el impuesto sobre la renta (income tax) por el salario pagado por la organizacià ³n internacional. Tramitacià ³n de la visa G-4 y de su extensià ³n Una vez que se ha encontrado una organizacià ³n internacional que ofrezca un trabajo al que se puede aplicar, debe conseguirse que està © de acuerdo en contratar. Una vez que se tiene la oferta de contrato ya debe iniciarse el proceso ante una oficina consular de los Estados Unidos.. Si la persona contratada se encuentra en Estados Unidos deber tambià ©n tramitar la visa en un consulado y salir del paà ­s para obtenerla, ya que no se puede hacer este trmite dentro del paà ­s salvo en casos limitadà ­simos como el de los estudiantes internacionales con una visa F-1 en prcticas en la organizacià ³n internacional que ahora los contrata con una G-4. En estos supuestos podrà ­a ser posible cambiar la visa a travà ©s del USCIS. Se debe pedir una cita y los documentos a presentar son el DS-160, un pasaporte vlido por al menos medio aà ±o y una carta de la organizacià ³n internacional ofreciendo la contratacià ³n y fotos. Como regla general, no es necesario presentarse a una entrevista y las tasas de la visa no se pagan. Las oficinas consulares pueden pedir informacià ³n y documentacià ³n adicional, dependiendo de cada caso.   Estas visas se caracterizan por ser tramitadas inmediatamente. En cuanto a su validez, si una persona contratada con una visa G-4 se retira o es despedida debe abandonar EEUU en un periodo de 60 dà ­as junto con los familiares inmediatos tambià ©n titulares de ese tipo de visado. Y en estos casos, si se sale de EEUU no se puede volver a entrar, aunque la fecha de vigencia de la visa siga siendo vlida. En cuanto a la renovacià ³n, si el titular de una visa G-4 debe renovar la visa y est presente en EE.UU. puede contactar con la Diplomatic Liaison Division del Departamento de Estado o con la Misià ³n de EE.UU. ante Naciones Unidas, ya que en muchos casos es posible renovar la visa a travà ©s de esas oficinas llenando el formulario online DS-1648. Finalmente, cabe destacar que, en general, los maestros de la escuela internacional de Naciones Unidas no se consideran plantel de dicha organizacià ³n internacional, por lo tanto no pueden beneficiarse de esta visa. Pero puede ocurrir que la ONU solicite expresamente una G-4 a una persona en particular y el consulado correspondiente puede aprobarla pero no es la regla general. Tributacià ³n por parte de ciudadanos que trabajar en organizacià ³n internacional en EE.UU. Por supuesto que los ciudadanos estadounidenses, los residentes permanentes legales y las personas con permiso de trabajo en los EEUU no necesitan una visa G-4 para trabajar en una organizacià ³n internacional. En cuanto al pago de impuestos por el salario recibido por la organizacià ³n internacional, debe tributarse de una forma especial. La visa G-4 como camino a la green card La G-4 puede ser un puente hacia la residencia permanente tanto durante la vida laboral de una persona como tras su jubilacià ³n. En este à ºltimo caso si la persona ha vivido al menos 15 aà ±os en EEUU y, de ellos, tres y medio los ha residido en los siete aà ±os anteriores a retirarse, puede solicitar la green card para sà ­ misma y para su cà ³nyuge en los seis meses siguientes a su à ºltimo dà ­a de trabajo. Otras opciones para trabajar en Estados Unidos Para trabajar legalmente es necesario tener una situacià ³n migratoria que lo permita. Por ejemplo, porque se es ciudadano americano, residente permanente legal, se tiene una visa de trabajo o se est en una situacià ³n que permite solicitar y obtener un permiso de trabajo. Tener en cuenta que trabajar cuando no se est autorizado es una violacià ³n migratoria y, si las autoridades se enteran o lo sospechan dar lugar a que se cancele la visa. Frecuentemente, la persona se entera de que su visa es revocada cuando intenta regresar a Estados Unidos despuà ©s de un viaje a otro paà ­s y se encuentra con la desagradable sorpresa de que no la dejan entrar a paà ­s y la envà ­an de regreso a su lugar de procedencia.   Puntos Clave: Visa G-4  ¿Para quià ©n es?: extranjeros con contrato de trabajo en una organizacià ³n internacional ubicada en EE.UU.El titular de la visa G-4  ¿puede obtener visa para familiares?: sà ­, en general para el cà ³nyuge, compaà ±ero domà ©stico e hijos solteros menores de 21 aà ±os. En algunas circunstancias, ese cà ­rculo de familiares puede ampliarse. Pueden trabajar en EE.UU. y estudiar.El titular de la visa G-4,  ¿paga impuestos en EE.UU.?: No. Este artà ­culo es meramente informativo. No es asesorà ­a legal .

Friday, February 14, 2020

The reason why celebrities famous 2 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

The reason why celebrities famous 2 - Essay Example Those who have it and know it rises to the top and those without or rather haven’t known it yet are always left behind. This is evident in youtube where celebrities are unveiled on a daily basis (Hirsen, para 3). Actually, this is the basic premise behind all the success stories one can see in youtube. All individuals in Hollywood have enough claim to be labeled the title â€Å"celebrities." After all the reason, one knows they exist is because they are who they are and by that they have become successful from their performances in Hollywood. This does not take into consideration at all the people who have as much talent as them or even more. These talented people showcase their expertise via the internet. With the high usage of technology, young people have taken being a celebrity into their own hands by downloading videos into youtube so that they can share with the world, making them overnight celebrities. The audience in return enjoys the performance given by the youtube stars as they are original as compared to Hollywood stars (Hirsen, para 9). All in all, the article written by Hirsen clearly shows that the trending celebrities are youtube stars. They are mostly teenagers. These stars employ the aspect of talent into amusing individuals. Clearly, this shows that success and talent are facets that are not worlds apart, rather